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Gelatin

PROPERTIES: Gelatin is a heterogeneous mixture of water-soluble proteins of high average molecular masses, present in collagen. Proteins are extracted by boiling the relevant skin, tendons, ligaments, bones, etc. in water. Type A gelatin is derived from acid-cured tissue.FIBER DIAMETER: 200 – 400 nmAPPLICATIONS: Cosmetics, tissue engineering as a scaffold for 2D and 3D cell culture, hydrogels.

Gelatin

Zein

PROPERTIES: Zein is a class of prolamine protein found in maize. It is usually manufactured as a powder from corn gluten meal.FIBER DIAMETER: 600 nm – 1.5 µmAPPLICATIONS: Textile and food industry, pharmaceutical coating, tissue engineering as a scaffold for 2D and 3D cell culture.

Zein

Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)

PROPERTIES: Soluble in water and other polar solvents, good acid and salt resistance, biocompatibility.FIBER DIAMETER: 100 – 500 nmAPPLICATIONS: Stabilizer for polymerization, biocompatibility coating, binder in pharmaceutical tablets.

Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)

Polyvinyl butyral (PVB)

PROPERTIES: PVB is a synthetic non-degradable polymer with good water resistance, good elasticity, and high compatibility with other polymers. It is prepared from polyvinyl alcohol by reaction with butyraldehyde.FIBER DIAMETER: 400 nm – 1.1 µmAPPLICATIONS: Technical application, thermoplastic applications, filtration.

Polyvinyl butyral (PVB)

Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)

PROPERTIES: Water soluble synthetic polymer, resistant to solvents and oil. It has high tensile strength and flexibility dependent on humidity. PVA is nontoxic and biodegrades slowly. The properties of the polymer depend on the amount of residual acetate groups.FIBER DIAMETER: 200 - 400 nmAPPLICATIONS: Production of woven and non-woven textiles, sutures, encapsulation.

Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)

Polyurethane (PUR)

PROPERTIES: Polyurethane is a polymer composed of a chain of organic units joined by carbamate links. Most polyurethanes are thermosetting polymers that do not melt when heated, but thermoplastic polyurethanes are also available.FIBER DIAMETER: 300 – 800 nmAPPLICATIONS: Technical application, filtration media, tissue engineering as a scaffold for 2D and 3D cell culture, drug delivery applications, protective clothes.

Polyurethane (PUR)

Poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone-co-glycolide) (PLCG)

PROPERTIES: PLCG is an amorphous, biocompatible and biodegradable copolymer with a low melting point.FIBER DIAMETER: 800 nm – 3.6 µmAPPLICATIONS: Applications are available in the field of tissue engineering, especially cell scaffolds.

Poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone-co-glycolide) (PLCG)

Poly(L-lactide) (PLLA)

PROPERTIES: Poly (L-lactide) is a semicrystalline biodegradable polymer. It has excellent biocompatibility, which can degrade into lactic acid and be eliminated from the body by the normal metabolic pathway.FIBER DIAMETER: 700 nm – 1.4 µmAPPLICATIONS: The main applications are in tissue engineering, especially for cell scaffolds, dental and orthopedic devices.

Poly(L-lactide) (PLLA)

Polylactide (PLA)

PROPERTIES: Biocompatibility, biodegradation, very good processability, a wide range of degradation rates, mechanical, physical and other properties can be achieved by various molecular weights of PLA and its copolymers.FIBER DIAMETER: 300 - 700 nmAPPLICATIONS: PLA is used mainly for drug delivery devices and in the area of tissue engineering as a scaffold for 2D and 3D cell culture.

Polylactide (PLA)

Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)

PROPERTIES: Polylactide-co-glycolide is a copolymer of polylactic acid and polyglycolic acid. Depending on the ratio of lactide to glycolide used for the polymerization, different forms of PLGA can be obtained.FIBER DIAMETER: 600 nm – 1.2 µmAPPLICATIONS: PLGA is used mainly in the area of tissue engineering as a scaffold for 2D and 3D cell culture, for drug delivery devices and scaffolds.

Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)

Poly(DL-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PDLC)

PROPERTIES: PDLC is a biocompatible and biodegradable copolymer. PDLCL combines the desirable mechanical properties of PCL with the higher degradation and biocompatibility of PDLA.FIBER DIAMETER: 600 nm – 1.2 µmAPPLICATIONS: Tissue engineering scaffolds with a higher degree of degradation.

Poly(DL-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PDLC)

Poly(D-lactide) (PDLA)

PROPERTIES: PDLA is a polyamino acid. Typical properties of this polymer are long degradation time, hydrophobicity, good mechanical properties, etc. The degree of crystallinity, and hence many important properties, is largely controlled by the ratio of D to L enantiomers.FIBER DIAMETER: 1.5 – 2.1 µmAPPLICATIONS: Application field is the biomedical engineering, scaffolds, cell adhesion, bioresorbable sutures.

Poly(D-lactide) (PDLA)

Polyimide (PID)

PROPERTIES: Polyimide is known for thermal stability, good chemical resistance and excellent mechanical properties. Polyimide materials are lightweight, flexible, and resistant to heat and chemicals.FIBER DIAMETER: 100 – 700 nmAPPLICATIONS: Technical applications, electronics industry (cables, insulating films), medical tubing.

Polyimide (PID)

Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)

PROPERTIES: PHB is a semicrystalline isotactic stereoregular polymer, biodegradable and biocompatible thermoplastic material. PHB is water insoluble and relatively resistant to hydrolytic degradation.FIBER DIAMETER: 300 nm – 1.7 µmAPPLICATIONS: Biomedical applications, tissue engineering.

Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)

Polyethylenoxide (PEO)

PROPERTIES: Polyethyleneoxide is a synthetic polyether soluble in water as well as in many organic solvents. Other properties are biocompatibility, low toxicity and high melting point.FIBER DIAMETER: 100 - 200 nmAPPLICATIONS: Drug delivery, tissue engineering as a scaffold for 2D and 3D cell culture, surface functionalization, technical applications.

Polyethylenoxide (PEO)

Polydioxanone (PDO)

PROPERTIES: Polydioxanone is a colorless, crystalline, biodegradable synthetic polymer.FIBER DIAMETER: 600 nm – 1.4 µmAPPLICATIONS: Medical devices, biomedical applications, particularly in the preparation of surgical sutures.

Polydioxanone (PDO)

Polycaprolactone (PCL)

PROPERTIES: PCL is a clear and flexible polyester with elastomeric properties, good biocompatibility and biodegradation, broad miscibility, mechanical compatibility with many polymers and good adhesion to a broad spectrum of substrates.FIBER DIAMETER: 100 – 300 nmAPPLICATIONS: Biomedical applications, drug delivery devices, scaffolds for 2D and 3D cell culture, filtration.

Polycaprolactone (PCL)

Polyamide (PAD)

PROPERTIES: Polyamide is a synthetic semi-crystalline polymer. It has macromolecule with repeating units linked by amide bonds. PAD is exceptional for its high mechanical strength, rigidity and thermal stability.FIBER DIAMETER: 100 – 200 nmAPPLICATIONS: Technical application, filtration, biomedical application.

Polyamide (PAD)

Polyacrylnitrile (PAN)

PROPERTIES: Polyacrylonitrile is a synthetic, non-degradable, semicrystalline organic polymer resin. It is relatively insoluble in nature due to the strong polar nitrile groups. Mechanical properties of PAN nanofibers are very good, especially strong and tough of produced material.FIBER DIAMETER: 100 – 400 nmAPPLICATIONS: Filtration systems, technical application, scaffolds.

Polyacrylnitrile (PAN)

Hyaluronic acid

PROPERTIES: Hyaluronic acid is a non-branched polysaccharide soluble in water. It is distributed in connective, epithelial, and neural tissues. Hyaluronic acid is a natural part of the human body, hydrates the skin and is present in the eye. It is part of the ligaments, enabling our joints to move smoothly.FIBER DIAMETER: 20 - 150 nmAPPLICATIONS: Pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, tissue engineering as a scaffold for 2D and 3D cell culture.

Hyaluronic acid

Collagen

PROPERTIES: Collagen is the main structural protein of the various connective tissues in animals, in the form of elongated fibrils, and is mostly found in fibrous tissues such as tendons, ligaments and skin. Collagen is biocompatible and biodegradable.FIBER DIAMETER: 300 – 800 nmAPPLICATIONS: Tissue engineering applications, for example, heart valves, artificial skin substitutes. Scaffolds for 2D and 3D cell culture and drug delivery applications.

Collagen

Elastin

PROPERTIES: Elastin is a protein in connective tissue that is elastic and allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting and helps skin to return to its original position.FIBER DIAMETER: 300 nm – 1.4 µmAPPLICATIONS: Tissue engineering as a scaffold for 2D and 3D cell culture, drug delivery applications, wound dressings.

Elastin

Sodium Alginate

PROPERTIES: Sodium Alginate is a natural polysaccharide product extracted from brown seaweed. It is a biodegradable, hydrophilic, colloidal, polyuronic acid composed of mannuronic and glucuronic acid residues.FIBER DIAMETER: 150 - 250 nmAPPLICATIONS: Sodium Alginate is used in tissue engineering, cell scaffolds and for example in the food industry to increase viscosity and as an emulsifier.

Sodium Alginate

Cellulose acetate

PROPERTIES: Cellulose acetate is the acetate ester of cellulose, which is obtained by reaction of cellulose with acetic anhydride and acetic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid. This material is degradable.FIBER DIAMETER: 600 nm – 2.2 µmAPPLICATIONS: Filtration, textile engineering, technical application, cosmetics.

Cellulose acetate

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